three different forms of motivation. First, autonomous motivation is volitional and reflects interest or personal value. For example,when an activity is performed for pleasure or personal growth. Second, controlled motivation reflects external and/or internal contingencies and pressures. For example, when an activity is performed for external incentives, such as money or social recognition. Finally, amotivation reflects a lack of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Individuals engage passively in activities without any sense of intention."
360 Spanish PE teachers were surveyed through a number of online questionnaires, starting with the Pressure for Evaluation Based on Student Performance, which asked participants to rate their agreement with such statements as, e.g., “My school will evaluate me poorly if my students don't get good grades”.
Next, the subjects took the Work Motivation Inventory, which did the same with six four-item subscales corresponding to different types of motivation. E.g., "I teach for the intense moments of pleasure teaching gives me” (intrinsic motivation), or “For the income it provides me” (external motivation).
Finally, the participants took two more surveys, which allowed researchers to position them on the Subjective Vitality Scale, which assesses the feeling of being full of energy and alive, as well as on the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Exhaustion subscale.
Results showed that "the greater pressure that teachers felt from performance-based evaluations, the less likely [teachers] were to report that they taught for reasons of interest and personal value." In addition, "pressure due to teacher evaluation based on student performance also positively predicted amotivation among teachers. However, it must also be noted that, contrary to what was hypothesized, pressures associated with this type of student-based teacher evaluation did not significantly predict controlled motivation in teachers."
As noted by the researchers, "It is likely that the threats associated with the punitive aspects of this method of evaluation were perceived to be far greater than any rewards that would be available from improved student performance."
The study also demonstrated that motivation is closely related to teacher well- or ill-being. As the authors conclude, "Given that teacher well-being has been linked with better teaching performance, whereas teacher ill-being has been linked to negative teacher-student relationships (von der Embse et al., 2016) and poorer student academic performance, these findings suggest that evaluations based on student performance should be implemented very cautiously."
Source: Cuevas et alia (2018)