demandingness and responsiveness. Building on the work of Baumrind (1971), Maccoby and Martin (1983) contrasted four parenting styles based on these two dimensions.
2 Dimensions of Parenting
4 Parenting Styles
Good and Bad Parenting
Based on this typology, an extensive body of research has compared the effects of different parenting styles on various outcomes.
Transposition To Leadership
The transposition of parenting styles into leadership styles seems quite straightforward:
Lessons For School Leaders
Clearly, the previous taxonomy also has a “family resemblance” with other models of leadership, such as:
On the one hand, this large family of models indicates that our understanding of leadership is still at an early stage and requires further investigation and integration of its multiple facets. On the other hand, it gives credibility to a “parenting style” lens, from which the following lessons can be tentatively drawn:
Altay and Güre (2012) - Altay F. B. and Güre A., “Relationship among the Parenting Styles and the Social Competence and Prosocial Behaviors of the Children Who are Attending to State and Private Preschools”, Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, vol. 12, no. 4, 2012, pp. 2712-2718.
Barton and Hirsch (2016) - Barton, A. L. and Hirsch J. K., “Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement.” Journal of American College Health, vol. 64, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1–8.
Baumrind (1971) - Baumrind D., “Current Patterns of Parental Authority.” Developmental Psychology, vol. 4, no. 1, Pt.2, 1971, pp. 1–103.
Blake and Mouton (1964) - Blake R. B. and Mouton J. S., The Managerial Grid. Gulf Publishing, 1964.
Hersey and Blanchard, 1988 - Hersey P. and Blanchard K., Management of Organizational Behavior, Pearson, 2012.
Maccoby and Martin (1983) - Maccoby, E. E., Martin, J. A., “Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction”. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, vol. 4, Wiley, 1983, pp. 1-101.
Muczyk and Reimann, 1987 - Muczyk J. P. and Reimann B. C., “The Case for Directive Leadership”, Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 1, no. 4, 1987, pp. 301–311.
Pinquart (2016) - Pinquart M., “Associations of Parenting Styles and Dimensions with Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents: a Meta-Analysis”, Educational Psychology Review, vol. 28, no. 3, 2016, pp. 475-493.
Sanjeevan and de Zoysa (2018) - Sanjeevan, D. and de Zoysa, P., “The association of parenting style on depression, anxiety and stress among Tamil speaking adolescents in the Colombo city”, Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, vol. 47, no. 4, 2018, pp. 342–347.
Susheela (2018) - Susheela, "A Study of the Relationship between Depression and Parenting Styles among Adolescents", International Journal of Engineering Development and Research (IJEDR), vol. 6, no. 1, 2018, pp. 42-44.
Yap et alia (2013) - Yap, M. B. et al. “Parental Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety in Young People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”, Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 156, 2013, pp. 8–23.